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Kako se dobiva alkohol?

Kako se dobiva alkohol?

15 komentara 🕔03.ožu. 2011

Postoje različite vrste alkohola, ali su svi alkoholi organski kemijski spojevi. Najpoznatiji je alkohol što se nalazi u alkoholnim pićima. To je „etilni alkohol i obično je poznat kao alkohol od žitarica. Etanol se u pićima dobije djelovanjem kvaščevih gljivica na šećer u ječmu (pivo), grožđu (vino), te ječmu, kukuruzu ili raži (viski).

Etilni alkohol se dobiva od škroba i šećera, a može se dobiti i od povrća, žitarica i voća. Kad se proizvodi od škroba, škrob se najprije pretvori u šećer, a zatim se šećer fermentacijom pretvara u alkohol.

Fermentacija se prekida kada je volumni udio alkohola 16 %, jer koncentriraniji alkohol djeluje na aktivnost enzima. Pića s više alkohola se dobijaju destilacijom. Okus pića potječe od manje količine dugolančanih ugljikovodika, aldehida, organskih kiselina i estera.

Alkoholno vrenje je najstariji način dobijanja alkohola. U tom procesu se, uz katalitičko djelovanje enzima kvaščevih gljivica, ugljikohidrati pretvaraju u etanol.

U Sjedinjenim Američkim Državama alkohol se najčešće proizvodi od tamne šećerne melase (crnog sirupa, nusproizvoda kod proizvodnje šećera). Neke se vrste alkohola dobivaju od kukuruza, raži, ječma i ostalih žitarica). U Njemačkoj se alkohol najviše pravi od krumpira.Znate li da se etilni alkohol upotrebljava i kao gorivo? On se čak može upotrebljavati i u automobilima, kao zamjena za benzin. Kada se alkohol koristi u motorima, često je pomiješan s drugim kemikalijama da bi dobio na kakvoći. Za vrijeme Drugog svjetskog rata nekoliko zemalja, kojima je nedostajalo nafte, upotrebljavalo je umjesto benzina alkohol za pogonsko gorivo. Premda je alkohol lakši od vode, te se dvije tekućine lako miješaju i stvaraju rastvor (homogena smjesa sastavljena od dvije ili više supstanci) koji ima nižu točku ledišta od vode. Takav rastvor se obično upotrebljava kao „antifriz u automobilskim hladnjacima.

Zbog toga što se u njemu rastvaraju mnoge supstance, alkohol se često upotrebljava kao rastvarač (tekućina koja otapa drugu tekućinu), na primjer u proizvodnji lakova za drvo i kovine. Alkohol se također koristi za pripremu anestetičkih sredstava, kao što su kloroform i eter, te u proizvodnji mnogobrojnih supstanci, kao što su boje, lijekovi, masti i ocat.Alkohol je antiseptik. Upotrebljava se i u muzejima i bolnicama za konzerviranje uzoraka. Kao što vidite ima široku paletu upotrebe, i ne koristi se samo za piće. Kad se unosi u tijelo u manjim količinama, spaja se s kisikom i stvara toplinu, zato ne osjećamo hladnoću kada malo popijemo alkohola.

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